Basic notions for the references of proper names
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concept of notions
basic notions
basic notions for proper names
general similarity



At the beginning of these considerations, the author of the paper presents speculative arguments, as well as those based on empirical research, for the existence of basic notions for proper names which have a reference: several days after their birth, children are not able to determine the conditions deciding about belonging to a single-element category, but still they are able to recognize their mother’s face. Since they cannot do it with the use of characteristics, there must be another categorizing tool. The author, basing on the results of cognitive and gestalt psychologists’ research, acknowledges that it is a relation of a general similarity for which the author calls the concept built upon it “the basic notion”. The similarity is not reducible to strictly specified features and is an inequivalent relation. It is juxtaposed with specific similarity which is reducible to certain features and is an equivalent relation. The basic concepts for proper names are concepts of the basic level. None of the current ideas of concepts describe the structure of basic concepts for proper names. Next, the author of the article gives some properties of concepts for proper names that have a reference. The analysis is narrowed down to face recognition. At the end, the author indicates that there is a conflict in the philosophical literature whether proper names have any connotation. The substantiation that (at least some) proper names are connected with concepts can be treated as a support for the thesis that they have a connotation.

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